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cpu radiator

2020-09-22 10:15:17

CPUradiatorWhentheCPUisworking,itwillproducealotofheat.Iftheheatisnotsentoutinti...

CPU radiator

When the CPU is working, it will produce a lot of heat. If the heat is not sent out in time, the light will cause the crash, and the heavy may burn the CPU. The CPU radiator is used to heat the CPU.
The radiator plays a decisive role in the stable operation of THE CPU, it is very important to choose and buy a good radiator when assembling the computer.

Type of air-cooled radiators

The reason is that the CPU generates a lot of heat when it's working

It is very important to choose a good radiator

Radiator classification

CPU radiators can be divided into air cooling, heat pipe cooling and water cooling.

Air-cooled radiator


Air-cooled radiator this is the most common type of radiator and consists of a cooling fan and a cooling fin.
The idea is to transfer the heat generated by the CPU to the radiator, which then carries the heat away through the fan.
It should be noted that different types and specifications of Cpus use different radiators. For example, AMD Cpus use different radiators from Intel Cpus, and Intel 478 cpus use different radiators from Intel 775 Cpus.


Heat pipe radiator
Heat pipe radiator is a heat transfer element with very high thermal conductivity. It transfers heat through evaporation and condensation of liquid in a fully enclosed vacuum tube.
Most of these fans are "air-cooled + heat pipe", which has the advantages of both air-cooled and heat pipe, and has extremely high heat dissipation.

Water-cooled radiator

Water-cooled radiator is the use of liquid in the pump driven forced circulation to take away the heat of the radiator, compared with the air cooling with quiet, stable cooling, less dependent on the environment, and so on.



How to choose a radiator

How to choose oneself appropriate radiator, choose and buy a good radiator is very important.
Here are some parameters about the radiator.
Fan power: Generally speaking, the greater the power, the stronger the fan wind, the better the heat dissipation effect.
Fan speed: Generally, the higher the fan speed, the more air it provides to the CPU, and the better the air convection will be.
But there is a balance to be struck between the heat generated by the extremely high speeds and the wear and tear on the fan.
Heat sink material: the radiator is widely used low price, good heat dissipation effect of aluminum alloy as heat sink.
At the same time, in order to improve the overall heat dissipation effect of the heat sink, the middle and high grade heat sinks use copper media with better heat dissipation effect where they contact with the CPU heat dissipation core.
Fan noise: Refers to the sound produced during the operation of a fan, which is mainly affected by the fan bearings and blades.
Fan exhaust volume: Fan exhaust volume is an important index to measure the performance of a fan.
The Angle of the fan blade and the speed of the fan are the decisive factors affecting the exhaust air volume of the cooling fan.



Nickel plating process


The process of plating a layer of nickel on a metal or some nonmetals by electrolysis or chemistry is called nickel plating.
Nickel plating consists of electroless nickel plating and electroless nickel plating.
Electroplating nickel is composed of nickel salt (called main salt), conductive salt, pH buffer and wetting agent in the electrolyte, anode with metal nickel, cathode for plating, through direct current, deposited on the cathode (plating) on a uniform, dense nickel coating.
The bright nickel is obtained from the plating solution with brightener and the dark nickel is obtained from the electrolyte without brightener.
Electroless plating is also called electroless plating, or autocatalytic plating.
The specific process refers to the process in which metal ions in aqueous solution are reduced by reductants and deposited on the surface of solid matrix under certain conditions.


(1) Features and properties of nickel plating:

1. The stability of nickel plating in the air is very high. Because of the strong passivation ability of nickel, an extremely thin passivation film can be quickly formed on the surface, which can resist the corrosion of atmosphere, alkali and some acids.

2. Electroplating nickel crystal is extremely fine and has excellent polishing performance.
The polished nickel coating gives a mirror-like sheen and retains its luster in the atmosphere for a long time.
Therefore, electroplating is often used for decoration.

3. The hardness of nickel coating is relatively high, which can improve the wear resistance of the product surface.

4. Nickel plating, as decorative protective coating, protects the substrate material from corrosion or plays a bright decorative role on the surface of steel, zinc die casting, aluminum alloy and copper alloy;
Also often as other coatings in the middle of the coating, on its plating a thin layer of chromium, or plating a layer of imitation gold, its corrosion resistance is better, the appearance is more beautiful.

5. In electroplating, nickel plating has many excellent properties.

(2) Characteristics and properties of electroless nickel plating:

One of the main features of electroless nickel plating is that its thickness is uniform and its plating ability is good. It is also one of the reasons for its wide application. Electroless nickel plating avoids the uneven thickness of electroless nickel plating due to the uneven distribution of current.
Electroless plating, as long as the surface of the parts and plating solution contact, the components consumed in the plating solution can be timely supplement, plating parts of the plating layer thickness is basically the same, even if the groove, gap, blind hole is so.

2, the plating will not be hydrogen, no hydrogen embrittlement, electroless nickel plating does not need to remove hydrogen.

3. Many materials and parts have better functions, such as corrosion resistance and high-temperature oxidation resistance, than nickel plating.

4. It can be deposited on the surface of various materials, such as steel, nickel base alloy, zinc base alloy, aluminum alloy, glass, ceramics, plastics, semiconductor and so on, thus creating conditions for improving the performance of these materials.

5. Dc motor or control equipment required for general electroplating is not required.

6, low heat treatment temperature, as long as under 400℃ after different heat preservation time, you can get different corrosion resistance and wear resistance, therefore, especially suitable for complex shape, surface wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the functional coating parts.

 

                                                                           Nickel-plated tube

Nickel plating type

The main types of nickel plating solution are sulfate type, chloride type, sulfonate type, citrate type, fluoroborate type, etc.
The Watts (low chloride) nickel plating solution is the most common industrial application.
Physical properties of nickel coatings obtained in several different nickel plating solutions.
Sulfonate type, fluoroborate type suitable for thick nickel plating or electroforming.
The citrate type is suitable for direct nickel plating on zinc die castings.
The cost of these baths is relatively high.

◆ Common nickel plating (dark plating)

1. Common electroplating process is also called dark nickel plating process. According to the performance and use of the plating solution, common nickel plating can be divided into low-concentration pre-plating solution, common plating solution, watt solution and rolling plating solution, etc.

Preplating solution: after preplating, the bonding force between the layer and the copper and iron substrate and the subsequent copper plating layer is guaranteed to be good.

Ordinary solution: the plating solution has good conductivity and can be electroplated at low temperature. It saves energy and is convenient to use.

Watt solution: meet the plating of small parts, but the plating solution must have good conductivity and coverage ability.

2. Preparation method of plating bath

According to the volume calculation need chemicals, respectively dissolved in hot water, mix in a container, add distilled water to dilute to volume, let stand to the required size, quiet place to clarify, the plating solution with rainbow drawn or filtering method into plating bath, add sodium dodecyl sulfate solution has dissolved, stir well, sample analysis, adjusted after plating is eligible, can produce.

3. Anode for nickel plating

The purity of nickel anode material is the most important condition in electroplating. With the content of nickel >99%, the impure anode results in the contamination of the plating solution and the physical properties of the plating layer are deteriorated.
There are several suitable nickel anodes in nickel plating as follows: 1. Carbon nickel anodes, 2. Oxygen nickel anodes, 3.
Nickel - containing anode.

Bright nickel in pieces

Bright nickel plating has many advantages, can not only save much polishing process, improve the operating conditions, save electroplating and polishing materials, also can improve the hardness of the coating, easy to realize automation production, but in the bright nickel plating layer containing sulfur, internal stress and brittleness is larger, the corrosion resistance than dark nickel plating layer, in order to overcome these shortcomings, can use multilayer nickel plating process, make the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the coating improved significantly.

Pieces of high sulfur nickel

The general content of high-sulfur nickel is 0.12~ 0.25%.
The nickel has higher electrochemical activity than copper, copper-tin, dark nickel, bright nickel, semi-bright nickel, chromium and so on.
High sulfur nickel plating is mainly used in steel, zinc alloy substrate combination of prevention and care - decorative coating layer, the principle of bright nickel is upper than the lower half bright nickel and high sulfur content, so that the potential difference between the two layers to 100 ~ ~ 140 mv, such making that double nickel by monolayer nickel into transverse longitudinal corrosion corrosion, constitutes a electrochemical protection to the steel substrate.

Pieces of nickel sealing

The nickel seal is to add insoluble solid particles (Sio2, etc.) with the diameter of 0.01~ 1um into the general bright nickel solution. With the help of an appropriate co-deposition accelerator, these particles are co-deposited with nickel to form a composite nickel plating layer.
When the chromium layer is deposited on the surface of the composite nickel layer, because the solid particles on the surface of the composite nickel layer are not conductive, chromium cannot be deposited on the surface of the particles, so a large number of microholes are formed in the entire chromium layer, that is, microporous chromium layer is formed.
Save large amounts of microporous surface, can be largely eliminate ordinary chromium layer in huge internal stress, thereby reducing the stress corrosion of the coating, is particularly important is the chrome layer of a large number of pores, the nickel layer under the chrome layer exposed to large area, under the action of corrosive medium, chromium and nickel corrosion cell, chromium layer as the cathode, microporous exposed nickel layer for anode and eroded, which changes the big small cathode anode corrosion pattern, make the corrosion current is split into almost the whole of nickel plating layer, so as to prevent the big and deep though a small amount of base metal corrosion grooves and pits, and reduce the corrosion rate of coating, and to the horizontal
Thus, the base metal is protected and the corrosion resistance of the coating is significantly improved.

In pieces satin nickel

Satin nickel is also called satin nickel.
There is no essential difference between satin nickel and nickel seal.
It has a satin-like appearance, after the coating will not shine like bright nickel chrome plating, so people will not feel tired after staring, can be used as an anti-glare coating to avoid light reflection.
Such coatings have been widely used in automobile reflectors, automobile internal fixation parts, medical surgical instruments, machine tool parts, eyeglass frames and other surfaces.

High stress nickel

The high stress nickel layer, called high stress nickel layer, can be obtained by adding proper additives in specific nickel plating solution.

High stress nickel is coated with a layer of nickel around 1um on the surface of bright nickel.
Due to the large internal stress of high-stress nickel, a large number of micro-cracks are generated in the high-stress nickel layer at the interaction between the chromium layer and the high-stress nickel layer after the regular plating of 0.2-0.3um ordinary chromium layer on the surface of the high-stress nickel layer, which results in the formation of uniform micro-cracks on the surface of the chromium layer.
Like the nickel seal, the chromium layer becomes micro-discontinuous chromium, but the one obtained by high stress is micro-discontinuous chromium. Under the action of the corrosive medium, these crack positions are converted into countless micro-cells, so that the corrosion current is dispersed at the micro-cracks, and the corrosion resistance of the entire coating is significantly improved.

Multilayer nickel plating

The purpose of multi-layer nickel plating is to obtain two or three layers of nickel plating on the same substrate with different plating solution composition and technological conditions, so as to increase the corrosion resistance of the nickel layer without increasing or decreasing the thickness of the nickel layer.
There are many nickel/chromium composite layers used in production

Double layer nickel semi-bright nickel/bright nickel/chromium

Three-layer nickel semi-bright nickel/high-sulfur nickel/bright nickel/chromium

Semi-bright nickel/bright nickel/Nickel seal/Chromium (microporous chromium)

Semi-bright nickel/bright nickel/high stress Nickel/Chromium (microcracked chromium)

Amino sulfonate nickel plating

The main advantages of aminosulfonate nickel plating are that the electroplating stress is low, the plating solution deposition speed is fast, but the price is more expensive, used for electroforming and printing circuit board before plating nickel.

◆ Citrate nickel plating

Nickel citrate plating process is mainly used for zinc die - casting electroplating.
The main maintenance measures are: control the ratio of nickel sulfate and citrate at 1:1.1 ~1.2, the temperature should not be too high, in order to prevent the decomposition of citrate, strict control, pH value, the parts into the trough using impulse current (2~3A/dm2) to ensure a good binding force.

White spot countermeasures

A reason for

The white spots of nickel electroplating are caused by a high carbon substance which is produced during the carburizing process of heat treatment and pickling process of electroplating pretreatment.

(1) The carbon on the surface layer after the normal carburizing of 1018 materials (mainly Fe and C)

Up to 0.8 ~ 1.2, particles prominent in the plating layer is due to the pretreatment cleaning is not thorough, so that the surface of the workpiece particles fell into the plating solution, in the plating process due to the stirring effect, so that these particles free in the plating solution and nickel ions produced co-deposition.

(2) The hole in the coating is not covered, mainly caused by corrosion (surface decarburization) caused by pretreatment pickling process.
The main component of acid bath in electroplating factory is HCl 1:1;
50 mL/L - H2SO4 (98%);
This formula is ok for ordinary carbon steel, but too high for high carbon steel.
The higher the carbon content, the more intense the pickling reaction.
The surface decarburization has great influence on the conductivity and coating adhesion of the workpiece.
The holes in the coating are actually due to the poor conductivity (or adhesion) of the high carbon part, the coating is difficult to cover.

The solution

(1) Improve the pre-treatment cleaning process, using ultrasonic cleaning method, so that after carburizing poor adhesion particles fall off in the cleaning.

(2) Filtrate the bath in time.

(3) Improve pickling process: mainly reduce the concentration of pickling solution, add appropriate corrosion inhibitor and control the pickling time appropriately to avoid over-corrosion.

By taking the above measures, the problem of electroplating white spot of the product has been solved fundamentally.

 


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